Purchasing Golf Clubs

Reflection on a purchase when “influencers” played a role in my decision-making process.

pingLast spring I purchased a new set of golf clubs from Golf Galaxy for over $500. The set I purchased were Ping G20s. This was a top of the line set, however they were last year’s model when I purchased them, so they were not quite as expensive as when they were first released.

The primary influencers on my purchase were other golfers. Rounds of golf tend to last 4-5 hours and there is not always a lot to talk about. One of the topics of conversations that comes up frequently is what kind of clubs or driver you are hitting.

One thng golfers are not, is shy when it comes to sharing an opinion on a club they own. They know which ones they like and which ones they don’t. They are always thinking about what club they want next, whether it be a driver, putter, pitching wedge or hybrids. There is always a belief that if only they had this club or that one, their game would be improved.

Throughout my many conversations our on the course, I heard many good things about PING golf clubs. The brand is a favorite among the serious golfers because they put engineering ahead of looks, A few years back, Nike started making golf clubs, While many golfers went out to try them, the consensus is that they werequite the opposite of PING. They were designed by designers to look good, but the engineering was an after thought. Therefor nothing aside from playing generic knock off brand clubs says amateur golfer than a guy with Nike clubs.

Additionally, given the number of times I had talked to other golfers about my clubs, it was important to me to have a nice set to show that I can play with the serious golfers. Before heading out, other golfers will size you up based on what kind of clubs you have. Are you a hacker? Are you serious golfer? Or are you somewhere in between. This is important because good golfers like to play with other good golfers for a variety of reasons.

First, you usually tee off from the same tee box. Second, in golf it is very easy to rise or fall to the level of partners you are playing with. And finally, good golfers usually understand the etiquette of the game which is important in golf because it helps good golfers play well when there is a certain rhythm to the round. If one of your playing partners is spending 10 minutes in the woods looking for a ball that slows everybody down and talks them out of rhythm. Because of these reasons, people may try to avoid playing with you if they think you are a hack.

So in conclusion, my purchase of new golf clubs was highly influenced by what other golfers might think of me. Further it was influenced by what they thought about the brand of clubs I purchased. And much to my delight, my golf game has improved with my new clubs, so all of those guys who talked up PING must have known a thing or two.

No Time, Lawn Mowers & Irrational Behaviors Affecting Purchase Decisions

090814-01MARWhen I had time to shop, I had no money. Now that I have money, I have no time to shop.

I am one of those consumers whose majority of purchases are probably difficult to understand for a marketer because they are not always logical. I find that in most instances of my own irrational purchase decisions, they are driven by a lack of time for research or simply a lack of caring whether or not I find the right product that exactly meets my needs.

In his book, Predictably Irrational, Dan Ariely explains why many consumers just like me tend to behave irrationally in many of their purchase decisions.1 In this paper I will highlight three concepts Ariely uses to explains irrational purchase decisions. They are relativity, the decoy effect and zero to free. I show how these theories can be found during a simple trip to Home Depot to purchase a lawn mower. But first, let’s look at each one of these theories.

The first theory of relativity says that consumers are likely to make product and value comparisons based on what is easily comparable.2 Ariely uses the example of bundling products together to give the consumer a relative idea of what a component should be valued at. This can be highly effective on consumers who have no other framework for assessing the value of whatever product they want to buy.

The next theory called the decoy effect says that consumers will be swayed to prefer one option more than another option if a third option is added to the mix that is diametrically different.3 Adding the third product as an anchor price, can all of sudden make one of the first two options seem much better because the consumer now has something to compare each of the other offers to.

Finally, the last theory called zero to free says that when something is given away for free, such as free shipping, we can get so caught up in getting something for free that we forget the negative attributes or drawbacks associated with buying the product in the first place.4

Based on my own reflection however, I would add to his paradigm that we are more likely to purchase something based on irrational logic the less time we spend making a decision. Which in today’s world is an ever shrinking commodity. And thus, that is why I believe we are seeing more and more irrational behavior driving our purchase decisions.Let’s look at where we can find each one of these tactics while shopping for a lawn mower at Home Depot.

If I am a consumer shopping for a lawn mower, it is most likely that a) I bought a new house and need a new mower or b) my lawn blower just blew up and I need something new quickly so I can finish the job. In either case, the consumer seems to be scrambling for time. It is unlikely they sat around reading the latest consumer’s reports on how the newest lawn mowers compare against one another.

So how does the theory of relativity come info play? First consider the wide range of lawn mowers you could buy. Brands purposefully offer anything from a basic push mower, all the way up to a professional grade riding mower. As the theory of relativity states, we like to compare things that are easily comparable. When walking back to the display of lawn mowers at the Home Depot, the first thing we walk through are beautiful riding lawn mowers we wish we could purchase without getting in trouble with our wife. However, as you breeze by those, you might subconsciously take notice of the white, green and orange colors. Then when you get to the price range you are comfortable with, say between $150 and $200, you may have already cemented in your mind that these red, white, green and orange brands are the ones for you, since they make mowers good enough for the lawn professionals.

Finally, once you have settled into comparing the models and brands within your price range, you might start to look at a wider variety of price ranges to see if what you are looking to purchase is a good value or not. And much to your surprise, you might find that brand or model you are considering has a similar model priced significantly higher. The only difference you see are a couple extra inches of blade circumference or perhaps a slightly larger engine. This is certainly not a coincidence though. Any good marketing department has a distributed chart of what customers said they were willing to pay for a lawn mower. And they know that if they produce a batch of what Ariely calls the decoys, you are likely to think that the model which you first were considering is a great value since it looks similar to the more expensive version.

Finally, as you start to wrap things up, you might give the entire product set another lookover to make sure you have the right one. But wait, a competitor’s model, similar in price and feature set comes with a free gas can! Utilizing Ariely’s concept of zero to free, which says that for items that are free, we tend to forget about all of the negative attributes of a product5, we may just have changed our mind. And again because our time is valuable and we have already spent 20 minutes evaluating these options, we are ready to go and we walk out with the mower with the free gas can.

As you can see based story I just described, it is very easy to see why so many rational people behave irrationally in many of their purchase decisions. This experience was not unlike my own experience three years ago when I purchased a lawn mower at Home Depot. It was May and my wife and I had just moved into our house a few weeks prior and it looked like lawn needed some mowing. Without doing much research because I seemingly had a million other things to work on around the house, I simply when in and based on what product “felt” right to me based on all of the subconscious cues, I bought what I bought. It was a simple $150 lawn mower. And to this day, although I am fine with my purchase, I still walk by the riding mowers and think about how nice it be to have one of those. Perhaps next time I buy a new mower, I’ll sucked into buying a high-end mower.


  1. Ariely, Dan. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008. N. pag. Print.
  2. Ariely, Dan. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008. 3. Print.
  3. Ariely, Dan. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008. 5. Print.
  4. Ariely, Dan. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008. 50. Print.
  5. Ariely, Dan. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008. 54. Print.

Creative Pricing Strategy Creates Retail Consensus

General Views From Inside a Mall of AmericaBath & Body Works: The Shopping Experience
I recently visited Bath & Body Works at the Mall of America for an observational study I was conducting for my Buyer Behavior class at the University of Minnesota. From the outside, I noticed the store was very well lit. It was one of the few stores in the mall that had product on the outside of the doors before you enter the store.

The products outside were candles and lotion, which not coincidentally are a great attraction for sampling or stopping to take a sniff. Observing the store from the outside, I noticed numerous people, even if they didn’t go into the store, stop and smell a candle or take a free sample of lotion.

This was just one aspect of Bath & Body Works attempt to build what as Robert Cialidini and Steve Martin call a “consensus.”  To execute on that Bath & Body Works purposefully placed their most engaging products at the front of the store to make the store look busier and therefor appear to be more attractive to passersbys.

The second major aspect I noticed of attempting to build a social consensus was the prices set for sale items in the front of the store. Strategically, these were marked “Six for $25” or “Two for $20” or something of the like, which would inherently make consumers spend more time sifting through the product before making a purchase. Thereby again making the appearance of a very popular place to go shopping with deals that customers can’t keep their hands off. I thought this approach was genius.

Deeper into the store, I noticed that sampling was highly encouraged. Every type of lotion or body spray had an open bottle with a huge try me sticker on it. In addition, two giant sinks encouraged customers to sample the various kinds hand soaps. This was what Robert Cialidini and Steve Martin described as “reciprocity.” If you try enough of these products, you’ll eventually feel like to you have to buy something.

Finally towards the back of the store before you are getting ready to check out, there were a couple of large display tables, one table was targeted at children shoppers, while the other was targeted toward men. The table of targeted towards children had multiple levels and were the perfect height children of all heights to get something in their hands.

Other Observations

  • In terms of targeted customers by fulfilling one of the trio of basic needs, power, affiliation and achievement, I did not see this at all. Unlike many other stores in the mall, none of images in the store had people in them. Instead, they were all of water, fruit or flowers. My guess is that during some focus groups with their target market, the suburban & rural mom 25-54, they found that most of them were not impressed by alluring images of people who portray power, affiliation or achievement.
  • The scent inside the store was not as overpowering as I remembered. I can remember going to the store with my mom, probably 15 years ago and being overtaken by the array of scents. This is something they must have changed since that time and I think it was a very good move. I no longer felt the urge to leave as quickly as possible.
  • Surprisingly, I did notice a lot of women shopping the items along the walls behind the center islands. My guess is that they were probably repeat customers looking for  specific products.

Marketing Manager Recommendations

If I were the marketing manager for Bath & Body Works, I might consider creating a loyalty program. I didn’t see anything in particular driving a loyalty program and I think it could be helpful considering it is competing against other retailers like Target and Walmart for the share of wallet on soaps, lotions and candles.

I also checked the website and I did not see any programs designed for automatic monthly delivery. What if customers could sign up online to receive shipments of their favorite hand soaps each month?

Finally, given the competition, other than super friendly sales people, I didn’t see much signage indicating that the store was an “authority” in the space. There were no ingredient cards or visuals explaining why Bath & Body Works products were any better or different from the competition. At best, there were some signs outside of the store boasting of “new fragrances, new formulas, and new looks” but nothing further explaining any of it scientifically. Selling commodities at a premium price can be challenging. I would put some more focus on reinforcing the superiority of the product.